Monday, January 27, 2020
International And Domestic Business Tourist Tourism Essay Tourism industry is one of the booming industries in the world. It is observed that according to survey visitor information available in Sydney is not sufficient. To survive in competitive market it is necessary to provide best possible experience to the visitors with the intention of maximize profit and repeat business. (Destination NSW) Such experiences which they will remember for long time and which affect them psychologically. It is important to know needs of the tourists what attract, encourage them to travel to the destination. Once you know the necessity of the tourist you can prepare for effective target market strategy. Many organisations and tourism department are responsible to set the standard of the particular destination and convert it into a product. Lot of organisation play important role for development of Sydney. In Sydney, Tourism Sydney Council, National Tourism Alliance, Sustainable Tourism Co-operative Research Centre, Tourism Training Australia, Quality Tourism (Sydney Tourism Brand , 2012) contribute for rapid growth of the tourism. Tourism NSW with help of Tourism Australia influences lots of potential global tourists to NSW with skill education, promotion and publicity campaigns, and online services. Main intention is to grow consciousness about sustainable tourism product. The promotions are intended to invite tourists from every part of the world. Hence tourism promoting strategy sets idea for promotional activities of Medina grand Sydney which helps hotel for publicity and campaign of their products. (Tourism Australia, 2012) Mature Markets: UK, USA, New Zealand,Ã Japan Emerging Markets: China, India, South Korea Trade Development Markets: Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Ã Germany, Gulf Countries, Other Europe Market Segmentation On the basis of observation in the market Tourism Sydney has found two main areas of market segmentation: 1) Geographic Approach 2) Psychographic Approach Geographic Approach It is essential to realize geographical aspects to target specific market. The value of International and domestic tourists both are key target market for Medina Grand Sydney. Tourist comes for the purpose of business deals, vacation and adventure sport. Sydney is one of the major cities of Australia and well-known as historical place. Concerts and events are also major type of attractions. Number of adventurous sports help to attracts adventurous tourist. Sydney is popular destination among tourist same like Queensland and Melbourne and now we can called it as main tourism activities place in Australia. The diseases like bird flu and global terrorism affects the international tourist visiting to the Sydney. (Sydney City Information ) Total 26.8 million international and domestic tourists visited to Sydney every year. Number of international visitors increases because of attractive offer by airlines during on and off season and tie up of tourism Australia with international airlines. Most of the tourist comes to visit Sydney are local people from major cities of Australia. . The tourism Australia expected the tourist with different purpose will grow up to 40 million in 2030. The tourist who lives in Brisbane, Melbourne, Victoria and Perth which comes for small period of time consider as important target market. The international tourist who comes from UK, America, New Zealand, Japan and Asia mainly they are corporate traveller. Every year 7.9 per cent Chinese visitors estimate to grow in Australia and will be 783,000 till the end of 2019. (Research, 2012) Recently increase in number of tourists from India, China and South Korea which is emerging market for Australia. Sources of International Business Tourist (Research, 2012) This pie chart shows international travellers of different countries. We can see in pie chart that most corporate travellers come through Asia and New Zealand for business purpose. Asia is most growing international market. Around 18% Asian visitors come to Sydney in recent years which are comparatively very high if we match with last five years statistics. China and India are two main countries from where most of the visitors visited Sydney. By doing some research on target market and understanding their culture Tourism Australia can take competitive advantage of such market. Psychographic Approach Hotel Medina Grand Sydney is situated in one of most popular area of the Sydney. Most people choose Australia as their holiday destination for living in Sydney. It has prosperous ethnic groups, excellent infrastructure, superb consumer choices and solid local and international corporate activities. Sydney today claims as Australias most leading Central Business District and most national and multinational industries chose to have their head office in Sydney which attracts lots of business travellers. Sydney is perfect city for beach lovers, Bondi and Manly are the most famous beaches in Sydney. (Visitors Guide and Information ) Most attractive and uncrowned beaches are found on north and south of the Sydney. Hotel Medina gives beautiful view of the city. Because of hotel is situated in centre of the city its excellent opportunity for all the travellers for shopping with family and friends All kind of accommodation options are available at theÃ Medina Grand Sydney hotelÃ have been designed to create comfort and an atmosphere. Hotel is only 5 minutes away from Cockle bay, movie theatres at door, Entertainment Centre and China Town just 10 minutes walking distance (Attraction Around Sydney , 2012). Hotel has big conference hall. Hotel apartments provide the perfect venue for residential training courses. In relations of Psychographic above products are available which target domestic and international business travellers and holiday travellers including honeymooners and families. Potential Markets After analysing the above data and statistics specified in this paper about tourist market and segmentation, we can define about prospective target markets of Media grand Sydney. International and Domestic Business Tourist Consumers who are finding gorgeous places with advance level of service and sufficient comforts. This segment is proposed for tourists happy to pay quality prices for outstanding accommodations and service. Most present in main cities across the globe and located in historical areas. As we mention in the first section there are number of occupational deals happens in Sydney as city well-known for the centre of business activities in Australia. Therefore basically there are number of corporate people comes in the city. (Business Award 2012). Basically these business travellers seeks unique services and product with new trend of technology which offered by the Medina grand Sydney. As we know, being one of the best brands, Medina provides unique standard business services and product to the corporate travellers. This gives them chance of unique experience of accommodation as well as relaxing and peaceful environment from their busy work schedule. In adding to this, Medina grand has coll aboration with reputed travel agencies which helps hotel to targeted business travellers. The report of Sydney Tourism reflects tourists from New Zealand, USA, Europe and Asia visiting to Sydney are improved by 26% recently. (Sydney Tourism News, 2011) Besides, most business people from New Zealand and Asia visit to business capital of Australia for the professional purpose. Medina Grand Sydney can offer following services and products to their international and domestic business markets: Resident Manager 24 hour reception Resident Manager Covered heated swimming pool Mini bar Gymnasium Undercover parking Dry cleaning and laundry services Sauna In-room Massage available through Reception Dry cleaning and laundry services Babysitting available Pantry services Cuisine Courier Undercover parking (Hotel Facilities ) Leisure Tourist Currently, its cost-effective for Medina Grand to target the business tourists. This segment was affected by worse transactions in weak economy situations but indicates signs of recovery. Business travellers are generally at senior level management positions in their company. Even if they are not searching for the traditional feature of the city but they expect a suitable place. They are knowledgeable about the current market news and communicate minimum two languages. Maximum corporate travellers busy in hectic life and travel alone, so they need some peaceful atmosphere which they expect from Medina Grand Sydney. Medina Grand has also established superior offers such as SPA (Home Away From Home, 2012). These targets are senior citizen couples who expect a high class service; honeymooners and somebody celebrating a special event. Sydney is a one of the major city in Australia. Medina Grand hotel is situated in the centre of the city and you can call it heart of the city which is nea r from all the attractive places in Sydney. Medina grand hotel is close to Sydney Town Hall, Darling Harbour. Area of attraction also includes Opera House in Sydney and Chinese Garden of Friendship. Medina Grand Sydney deals quality accommodation in one of the most entertainment district, Darling Harbour. Travellers looking for the perfect luxury and advance facilities will definitely like this hotel. Some famous historical attractions such as Sydney Aquarium and Australian National Maritime Museum are situated at a walking distance from the hotel. Famous charming commercials of the city, such as IMAX Theatre and Star City Casino are at a stones throw away. Diverse types of native animals can be spotted at the adjacent Sydney. Great location to allow a nice short walk to Market Street where all the great shopping can be done, China Town, and not too far to walk to The Rocks and Circular Quay. (Best Attractions) The hotel basically tries to attract stylish tourist by providing them g lamorous product and superior facilities. Hotel also concentrates on local tourist market segment who looking for interesting experience. Corporate travellers usually prefer luxury accommodation where they can appreciate speciality food with excellent value of service. Hotel Medina Grand can deliver following facilities: Deluxe Rooms and honeymoon suites Hot water pools Multi-cuisine Restaurants Health spa Sauna Gymnasium centre (Holidays) New Market and Strategic Approach Research study shows that it is possible for Tourism Australia to attract new target potential market. They can attract more number of leisure and business travellers from Asia. (Basically concentrate on India, China and South Korea). According to studies it is analyse that new target market should be beneficial for tourism Australia. (Marketing in Asia , 2012)From last two years more number of tourist coming from China. Tourist from China saw surprising development in Sydney, with rapid increase of visitors. However Sydney saw additional tourists from Korea and India by two per cent. Hence Medina Grand has chance to examine and attention Asian target market. Because of language difference, cultural differences between the countries, time consuming travel its very hard to find profit. Tourism Australia already spend heaps of money on marketing the destination in new target market and collaborate with travel agents to attract more travellers. To take over on this new market Medina Gra nd changes their policies and strategies for this market for e.g. presenting Chinese cuisine, multicultural cuisine in fine dining restaurants which open more choices for Asian customer. The most of the Asian Tourist make their booking through tour operator and most of the people book the air ticket through internet. Link up with more and more tour operators and arranging regional events for tour operator in every area must beneficial for Tourism Australia. Advertisement through social networking sites like Facebook and twitter also helpful for positive marketing of the destination and hotel. Target Market Process Making concern of above data, Medina Grand implements its own target market procedure. It supports them to recognise the customer activities and their needs and demand. Medina Grand Sydney Target Market Process The hotel Medina grand is in mid-maturity stage of product life cycle. To develop method of sustainability is essential at this phase to survive in competitive environment. Hence Medina Grand gives attention on retaining its competitive environment. Hotel sells unique product like health spa centre which is open all days of the week to target corporate and holiday travellers. Promotional Strategies Promotion: The hotel Medina Grand provides exotic facilities to attract high class traveller. They advertise themselves in world travel magazine, traveller guide, yellow pages, star hotel magazines which helps to build brand image of the hotel. Medina Grand also publicise their property through online medium and social networking sites. They have linked up with hotel website to promote themselves. Hotel also has review system for their hotel so that the traveller search online for booking and get to know the actual quality of standard through experiences of other travellers. Also local newspapers, TV channels, radio stations plays important role to invite domestic tourist. This type of marketing affects consumer behaviour and help in growth strategy of the hotel. Delivery Strategy Hotel Medina grant has excellent online reservation system. Hotel has tie up with many international airlines that already declared in previous description of this paper. To sum up they also have collaboration with tour operators, they have special training programme for tour operator. In that programme they first offer free facilities of hotel to the operator and at the same time they teach them about uniqueness of the destination and hotel by giving attractive offers and knowing them key points about destinations and events. Free holiday vouchers are provided for selling particular amount of rooms, commission is also delivered on every room. Marketing department always in touch with distributor by conferencing and mailing to know about new trends in market and current condition in the market. Marketing department has annually meeting with distributors in every regional area to maintain relationship with the distributors.G:DocumentsPIHMSTourism assignmentdistribution.jpgSupply Struc ture in Sydney Consumer Profiles: Worldwide corporate Travellers Age Most of corporate travellers visiting to Sydney are aged among 28 to 50 years, while some travellers are among 50 to 65 years. Average visitors stay -Avg. stay per guest is 3 nights. Ethnicity- European, New Zealander, Asian, American Annual Income per year- Around $40,000 $50,000 Necessities- Presentation hall and Board meeting rooms, Wi-Fi services Participation- Majority of tourists selects to lunch and dinner at speciality restaurants. Some tourist visit to night club, surfing, whale watching, shopping Local corporate Travellers Age- Most of the corporate travellers age among 30 to 50 years, while some are among 50-63 years. Average visitors stay- Avg. shay per guest is 2.5 nights. Origin Business cities in Australia. Annual income per year: Around $40,000 $45,000 Participation- Around 50% of traveller lunch and dinner in dine dining restaurant. Some tourist visit to cinema, visiting families, networks and waterparks, etc. High Class Stylish Travellers Age- 25 35 years. Sexual category: 60% of male and 40% of female visitors. Category: higher class charters, head of departments, managers, air crew. Average visitors stay: 4-5 days Purpose of travel: Presentation, Seminars, Business meeting, Conference and events Yearly Income: More than $50,000 Participation: Massage parlour, casino, wine testing and visiting famous places. Proposed Strategies Product Strategy Medina Grand is one of the finest 4 star hotels in Sydney; functioning in a saturated market, they cannot imagine to rise their income by growing the number of guests. Additionally, the treats of the market are out of control and presently restricted by the professional target choice. Hence, Medina Grand must attention on growing expenses per night and per person by developed outstanding services and preserving its occupancy rate despite the tough struggle and great choice of substitute product. To maintain standard of the hotel have facilities like family rooms, special premier studio room, cribs available, climate control and mini bar as matched to the competitors. (Medina Grand hotel, 2012) The prices of the hotel are always competitive and special discount for group booking and repeat business. Hotel provides pick and drop facility from airport, car facility for nearby attractions which is good advantage for guests of Medina grand hotel. The hotel is situated in main area of Sydn ey and marketing of such facility certainly attract more number of tourist in their hotel. Multi-cuisine restaurant of the hotel is open in all days of week which offers excellent opportunity for tourist visiting the destination from different countries. Therefore they can relax themselves before settle down in the hotel room. The corporate travellers who came for business deals can discuss their business deals in restaurant without taking the visitors to their rooms. Thus, it will be convenient for guest if hotel restaurant is open for all night during all days of the week. Market Positioning Strategy Currently, Medina Grand is positioned as one of the luxuries hotel situated in impressive area of Sydney. Number of increasing competitor in market, comparable positioning wants Medina Grand to redefine themself in front of targeted consumer. They can do it in couple of ways. Mainly Medina Grand could attract more number of leisure travellers. In addition Medina Grand could select business travellers but who are looking for luxury. Luxury positioning must be profitable. But for luxury positioning guest will expect superior quality. This is way they will spend more. In conclusion we can say Medina Grand must be most appropriate property for international corporate tourists. When travellers from new region and different culture grow rapidly its difficult to apply old strategy and policies to understand their needs. Prepare for new plans is better idea to take advantage of such competitive market. Research shows Asian market is future potential market. Thus Medina Grand know requirement of Asian corporate sector and holiday market to maintain sustainability of the industry. Marketing Mix Strategy The four Ps of marketing mix to attract travellers from Asian country because they are least affect by economic slowdown, Medina Grand Sydney has to make special marketing strategy which is mentioned below: Product: They are changing their policies and strategy to concentration on new target market and new ethnic group. Hotel will have to improve certain modifications to their foods and amenities by seeing needs of Asian Travellers. For e.g. Presenting Chinese and Indian cuisine in the speciality restaurant. To satisfy need of satisfaction Medina Grand can start improvement in their accommodation. Its important for corporate traveller to sleep well to maintain busy schedule of next day. Medina Grand can renovate their bed with advance comfort facilities. Hotel can improve fitness services features by adding new machinery and equipment in fitness centre. Tie up with local corporate companies by giving discount help to increase revenue of the company. So the non-staying guest can use the facilities, thus will raise IHS business. Medina grand has to develop the facilities of fun. Train the staff by taking care of cultural values of country of origin of the guest. This kind of service they will remember for long time and help in repeat business. For example, Medina grand appointing employee from Asia so that Asian travellers can feel the hotel as home away from home. Advertising: Tourism Australia is currently in a situation to increase its advertising activities. The Medina Grand have to part in Press Release. Descent articles in popular newspapers which follows by corporate people. Invite press people on special events in the hotel. Participate in social awareness events. Publicise some admired magazines help to build the image of the hotel particularly when its person who reads are corporate people. Conclusion: Market strategy: Domestic and international corporate travellers are our principle target market. Also need to growth our attention on countries like USA, UK, New Zealand, India, and China etc. which are our main source of income. Its better ignore the countries which are very challenging to make target so that can get more time to concentrate on main target market. Marketing mix strategy: Medina Grand have to advertise powerfully local travel journals in China and India. 56 % of International Corporate tourists to Australia reached at Sydney International Airport with 40% of them coming from Asian nations. t. Asia market has the potential to provide good profits for the business. Price: Medina Grand has higher room rates compare to other star properties in the market. According to strategy, increase in room rate can affect the business of the Medina Grand. By providing extra facilities hotel can increase the rate. Place: It is important to advertise the hotel Medina grand on websites of airlines and tour operators. Application of search engine promotion policy is also significant, as most of internet sites visits arise through search engines. Hotel online bookings must be improved by application of this strategy.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
In the past few years it seems that schools have really lost touch with the discipline of students. With the increasing frequency of school shootings and acts of violence it seems that the students are running the show instead of the teachers and administrators. There are many factors that are involved in creating a great classroom or a horrible classroom. From the way the teachers punish misbehaving students or the way they reward them when they do something right, to how involved the parents are with their children's education. The purpose of this paper is to explain how classroom management, when used effectively by the teacher, can produce an excellent learning environment for students. According to C.M. Charles, the author of "Building Classroom Discipline," the definition of discipline is, "what teachers do to help students behave acceptably in school (1999,p3)." Discipline is associated to misbehavior, wherever misbehavior is found, and discipline is needed. The main goals of discipline are to prevent, suppress and redirect misbehavior. Students can also be cruel and disruptive, which can deny the purpose of learning in the classroom. Another goal of discipline is to help students control their own behavior in and outside the classroom (Charles, 1999). My own definition of discipline is using any means necessary to keep a classroom organized, productive and accessible for learning. Discipline is necessary in a classroom, to give students an opportunity to learn to there fullest. Without discipline, the classroom would be a place where teachers could not perform their job but a place for them to baby-sit misbehaved children. Teacher quality is the most important issue when dealing with how effective a classroom will ... ...dents have the ability to learn to their fullest potential. When the environment is not controlled it is not a healthy place for kids to learn, it seems more like a day care while parents are at work. Another is having a relationship outside the classroom with students. Being involved in their life both academically and personally increases the trust and respect from a student toward the teacher. Most students go through stages as they become older. If there are misbehaved students it is important to remember that it is common to find students that are rebels. It is important to work with the students instead of just giving them to someone else to deal with. They are just looking for some attention and they want people to notice them and like them. If a teacher follows some of the thing mentioned earlier, they it will create a healthy, happy and vigorous classroom.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Dreams had always been a part of human existence. Since time immemorial, human beings had always been mystified on the phenomenon of dreaming. As early as 5000 B. C. , early civilizations had recorded and tried to interpret their dreams on clay tablets. The Egyptians, puzzled by the existence of dreams, had even believed in a God of Dreams whom they called Serapis. Up to the present age, theorists and psychologists are still unable to arrive at a definite explanation on why humans dream. Dreams are etched in the human mind in such a way that makes it hard for researchers to objectively study them. At present, there are three major theories that are widely accepted that explain such phenomenon: (1) FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory (2) Cognitive Theory and the (3) Activation-Synthesis Theory. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) believed that a dream exists as a wish fulfillment. According to him, people have unsatisfied or unexpressed desires during the times when they are awake and these desires are being fulfilled unconsciously when people dream through sleeping. For example, a person having unfulfilled sexual desires one or two days prior to sleeping may have dreams that are sexually erotic in nature (may lead to Ã¢â¬Ëwet dreamingÃ¢â¬â¢). Similarly, people who had been forced to suppress their anger during waking hours may have dreams that contain violent elements/scenes (Santrock, 2005, p. 244). This theory of Freud is particularly applicable to a personal experience. Once I broke our printer by accident. I was trying to find a way to fix it but the only solution I could think of is having it repaired by a technician. The main dilemma was that I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the money to have it fixed. It was very fortunate that no one else used the printer that day. When I slept in the evening, I dreamt that a certain old man came to fix our printer free-of-charge. The dream ended there. It can be seen from this experience that a problem during the day was given a temporary solution through dreaming. Although the printer wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t really fixed at all, the dream was sufficient in providing a quick way out of my anxiety caused by the broken printer. Another example was the time when I was craving for some McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s Fries for no particular reason. I havenÃ¢â¬â¢t been able to go to the said Fast-Food Shop because my mother borrowed my car. I just slept through my craving for McFries and I ended up dreaming about it, only that in my dream, the fries are much larger than the actual size. According to Freud, our dreams may contain scenes or events from our experiences of the past day or of the day before. One particular dream to illustrate this is my dream that I was able to fly. In the dream, I had my arms stretched over my head and I was flying over our village, very much like Superman. I could connect this dream to my behavior when I went swimming with my friends the day before. During my stay underwater, I had been imitating the flying position of Superman imagining that I was floating in mid-air instead of mid-water. An additional example for this theory of Freud is my dream on the Red Queen. I had watched on home video the movie Alice in Wonderland by Tim Burton. I was so irritated with the Red QueenÃ¢â¬â¢s face while I was watching the movie that I dreamt of the character when I slept in the evening. In the dream, I was having a dispute with the Red Queen where in the end I won our fight and I was able to command certain Knights, Ã¢â¬Å"Off with her head! Ã¢â¬ Perhaps connected to this principle of Freud was my experience when I had a fever. I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t feeling well when I slept and I was feeling a bit scared to sleep in solitude. In the middle of my sleep, I dreamt that I was transformed into a cat and that my friends could not recognize me. I was trying my best to scream my name to them but all that I could manage to say were small meows. The next stage of my dream was that I had a small hole in my skull. The small hole led to the deformation of my skull because it secreted foul-smelling cerebral fluid through it. I woke up in the middle of night sweating and breathing heavily. Even though events from days before may appear in a dream, it does not necessarily mean that the scenes in the dream happen in chronology. More often than not, a dream is a homogenous mixture of different time-frames where the sense of chronology is absent. Tied with this principle is that places where dream scenes may happen need not be logical or real. I had dreams before of having to wake up in my bedroom as the sun was just rising and stepping out of my room, I find myself at the school cafeteria way past dusk. I also had a dream wherein I was standing in front of my friendÃ¢â¬â¢s house. That friend of mine had offended me during one of our night-out with the rest of our peers. In my dream, I was back to the scene wherein we were having an intense argument. Then, one second of whirling brought me in front of that friendÃ¢â¬â¢s house, waiting for him to come out and ask for forgiveness. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t come out of the house though and I was brought to a garden where I found him sitting on a bench. At the end of the dream, I was the one who asked for his forgiveness. The following morning, before I left for school, he gave me a phone call telling me that he was sorry. According to Freud, there are two components of a dream, a surface element which he called the manifest content and a hidden meaning of the surface element which he called the latent content. For example, Freud states that snakes and neckties present in the dream may mean something else. The snake or necktie is the manifest content while its latent content is a male genitalia. This means the snake or necktie symbolizes a male genitalia. This idea of Freud made me remember a dream I had just this weekend. In the dream, I had been boating with a tour guide on the Amazon River. I was so terrified to see a giant snake swimming just under our boat. The faceless tour guide just told me that the snake couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t see us because we were in the snakeÃ¢â¬â¢s blind spot. I never knew what happened with me on that river, only that in the dream I was transported somewhere else I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t remember. Could my dream mean that I am fantasizing about whatever the snake symbolizes? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to believe though! The second theory of dreaming is the Cognitive Theory. It states that dreaming involves the same cognitive steps used in the waking mind: processing, memory and problem solving (Santrock, 2005, p. 245). In this theory, hidden meanings of dreams through symbols are not regarded as possible. Dreaming is looked upon as an opportunity for the person to find a state of mind where problems can be solved through creative thinking. Robert Louis Stevenson, for example, said that it was in a dream that he acquired the idea for Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Elias Howe claimed also that a dream provided him the idea of creating a sewing needle with the hole for the thread on the blunt tip of the needle and not on the middle. (Santrock, 2005, p. 245). Friedrich Kekule, the proponent of the structure of the benzene, said that the cyclic structure of benzene was seen in a dream wherein he saw a snake trying to bite its own tail as it moves in a circular manner. I could apply this theory in one of my experiences. I was trying to come up with a story on how humans need to face trials as means of being emotionally stronger. The story needed to be as creative as possible because I was going to present it to a youth group in our church. Out of fatigue due to too much thinking, I decided to take a nap on my desk. I dreamt then of a young butterfly inside a cocoon. When I woke up, I was reminded of a story I heard long ago from a Franciscan nun wherein a young man tried to help the young butterfly get out of the cocoon by opening the cocoon himself with the use of a pair of scissors. The butterfly went out of the cocoon weakly with scrawny wings and was unable to fly. The struggle of the butterfly to get out of the cocoon by itself helps it to develop stronger wings that would soon enable it to fly. If I hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t dreamt of the young butterfly in the cocoon, I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have remembered this story! The third theory is the Activation-Synthesis Theory. It states that dreams are part of the brainÃ¢â¬â¢s internal effort to explain the neural activity that still exists even though the person is sleeping (Santrock, 2005, p. 245). Neural networks in areas of the forebrain are involved in both the waking and dreaming behaviors. Primary motor and sensory areas of the forebrain may possibly be activated during the sensorimotor aspects of dreaming. (Santrock, 2005, p. 246). For example, if the dream asks for spatial organization, the parietal lobe would be activated. Similarly, if the dream asks for emotional requirements, the amygdala, hippocampus and frontal lobe may be activated. The movement of dreams in a Ã¢â¬Ëfantasy-whirlingÃ¢â¬â¢ manner may be due to the sudden, uncoordinated eye movements of REM sleep. The sudden shift or dissolvation of a particular dream scene is explained as due to the normal cycling of neural activation. During stages of sleep, levels of neurotransmitters may rise and fall wherein particular neural networks are activated and shut down. As a new cycle is activated, that is, new sets of neural networks are activated and shut down, a new dream scene comes to the focus. Dreaming, therefore, becomes a succession of fantasy-transitioned slide shows. In connection to this theory, I once had a dream that involved a real experience while I was sleeping. I managed to open my eyes as I was disturbed in the middle of a sleep. I then saw my mother in my room, fixing the mess I left on my study desk. Subconsciously, I knew that I saw my mother inside my room, but then, as if my brain wanted to explain or make a story out of what I saw, the exact scene came to my dream. In the dream, I stood up and helped my mom fix the mess on my desk, but then my mom turned into a classmate of mine and we were back in the classroom listening intently to our teacher. I woke up in the middle of the night, convinced that I really didnÃ¢â¬â¢t stand up to help my mom fix my mess. These three theories explain to us why people dream. FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory, The Cognitive Theory and the Activation-Synthesis Theory may view the phenomenon of dreaming in three different perspectives. In the present stage of human knowledge when it comes to explaining the human psyche, it could be said that an absolute explanation for dreaming is nonexistent. However, the three theories may work hand-in-hand in explaining and interpreting human dreaming. Reference Santrock, J. W. Psychology 7. McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. , 1221 Avenue of the Americas. Mew York, NY 10020. 244-246
Friday, January 3, 2020
In this essay, I will create a factual scenario indicating a crime against a person explaining how the same conduct may be prosecuted either in state or federal court pursuant to applicable state and federal statutes. I will identify the state statute, define the crime, and provide a citation to the authority. Similarly, I will provide the federal definition of that crime, including a citation to the applicable statute. The factual scenario that follows will demonstrate a case in which the same conduct can be prosecuted as a crime in federal or state court. Hugh and Alexandria live in Atlanta, Georgia. Hugh, a Caucasian male, was raised up that Caucasians are superior to African Americans. Hugh does not like his neighbor,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(c) A person also commits the offense of murder when, in the commission of a felony, he causes the death of another human being irrespective of malice. (d) A person convicted of the offense of murder shall be punished by death, by imprisonment for life without parole, or by imprisonment for lifeÃ¢â¬ (Justia, n.d., p. 1). In this scenario, Hugh killed Alexandria because of her race, which demonstrates that this was a hate crime; this gives the federal government the proper jurisdiction to prosecute the murder under a hate crime charge. Under the federal law Ã¢â¬Å"18 U.S. Code Ã § 1111 Ã¢â¬â Murder. (a) Murder is the unlawful killing of a human being with malice aforethought. Every murder perpetrated by poison, lying in wait, or any other kind of willful, deliberate, malicious, and premeditated killing; or committed in the perpetration of, or attempt to perpetrate, any arson, escape, murder, kidnapping, treason, espionage, sabotage, aggravated sexual abuse or sexual abuse, child abuse, burglary, or robbery; or perpetrated as part of a pattern or practice of assault or torture against a child or children; or perpetrated from a premeditated design unlawfully and maliciously to effect the death of any human being other than him who is killed, is murder in the first degree. Any other murder is murde r in the second degreeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Findlaw, 2013, p. 1). 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Reserve Fund Life AssÃ¢â¬â¢n, 112 F. 453, 465-66 (6th Cir. 1901) (Ã¢â¬Å"It is a rule of almost universal application that, between courts of the same sovereignty and concurrent jurisdiction, the court which first acquires jurisdiction of the controversy . . . shouldRead More`` Six Amendments : How And Why We Should Change The Constitution1644 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages where federal law rules supreme over local and state laws. In the Printz v. United States case, two sheriffs, Printz and Mack, separately challenged the Brady Act where the Attorney General was required to establish a national instant background-check system to prevent persons with mental problems and felons from obtaining firearms. In both cases, the Supreme Court ruled that the Brady Act was unconstitutional and stated that the national government must respect the sovereignty of state governmentsRead MoreThe Between Domestic And International Affairs1504 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesin 1649 have been responsible for upholding the normative structure of the world. This treaty stated that all rulers would let other rulers rule their own land however they saw fit. Constitutions like this led to the idea of territoriality and sovereignty where one is entitled to rule within their own borders. Global policy networks have been created that deal with the problems that a majority of nations are experiencing globally. These global politics have created global polity which mandates howRead MoreThe Iranian Political Dynamic1468 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesabsolute supremacy of Islam. The political system is also a fusion of theocracy and democracy. On one end, it limits pluralism and on the other it allows election of leaders through a public general election. The constitution of Iran allows popular sovereignty and blend it with the rule of jurisconsults. In this respect, institutions are governed by the clergy, while maintaining a four tier political system that consists of elected leader. The four-tier system consists of the executive, parliament, localRead MoreFifth Amendment2381 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesas sources of reference. The Fifth Amendment Ã¢â¬Å"No person shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.Ã¢â¬ (Lectric Law Library [LLL], N.D., page 1). The Fifth Amendment is one of 10 amendments included in the Bill of Rights that specifically deal with personal liberties from unjust searches to free speech. (Head, 2008, pageRead MoreJohn Austins Theory of Sovereignty6170 Words Ã |Ã 25 PagesLITERATURE 1.1 What is sovereignty? The concept of sovereignty is one of the most complex in political science, with many definitions, some totally contradictory. Usually, sovereignty is defined in one of two ways. The first definition applies to supreme public power, which has the right and, in theory, the capacity to impose its authority in the last instance. The second definition refers to the holder of legitimate power, who is recognized to have authority. When national sovereignty is discussed, theRead MoreChapter 1-3 Struggle for Democracy Study Guide Essay3407 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesRepresentative democracy Ã¢â¬â indirect democracy in which the people rule through elected representatives. f. Benchmarks of a liberal representative democracy include: popular sovereignty, political equality, and political liberty. When all 3 flourish the society is named a healthy democracy. i. Popular sovereignty Ã¢â¬â basic principle of democracy that the people are the ultimate source of government authority and of the policies that government leaders make. 1. governmentRead MoreThe Revolutionary Change Of Eastern Europe1581 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageslose their luster, especially to Gorbachev. In the past, leaders like Stalin and Brezhnev believed that Ã¢â¬Å" Soviet high-handedness and interference in the affairs of other socialist states, [was] opportunistic expansionism in the Third World, and the dual-track nature of MoscowÃ¢â¬â¢s policy toward the capitalist West,Ã¢â¬ which portrays the belief that control over new land had no consequences. Stalin also believed that expansionism could only be achieved through great industrialization of the country because